The United States and Canada share the world`s longest international border, 5,525 miles with 120 land ports, and our bilateral relations are one of the closest and most extensive. This is reflected in the high volume of bilateral trade – nearly $2 billion in goods and services per day – and in people-to-people contacts – about 400,000 people cross daily between the two countries. In areas ranging from border and national security to global affairs, the opioid crisis, environmental protection and free trade, our two countries work closely together at several levels, from the region/province to the federal government. Although Canada`s foreign and defence policy is generally consistent with that of the United States, differences of opinion occur from time to time. Since taking office in November 2015, the Government of the Liberal Party of Canada, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, has prioritized multilateral efforts to renew and strengthen the rules-based international order. She expressed disappointment at President Donald Trump`s decision to withdraw from international agreements such as the Paris climate change agreement and questioned whether the United States was abandoning its role as a global leader. These concerns were exacerbated by the disappointment of the G7 summit in Charlevoix, Quebec, in June 2018. A series of government studies have drawn increasing attention to the possibility of bilateral free trade negotiations: Look Outward (1975) by the Economic Council of Canada; several reports of the Senate Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs (1975, 1978 and 1982); and the 1985 Macdonald Commission report (formally the Royal Commission for Economic Union and Development Prospects for Canada), chaired by former Liberal politician Donald Stovel Macdonald. Macdonald said that “Canadians should be prepared to leap faith” and pursue more open trade with the United States. Although Macdonald was a former Liberal finance minister, the Commission`s results were adopted by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney`s Progressive Conservative Party, although they voted against a free trade initiative during the 1984 Canadian election campaign. The milestones for the start of free trade negotiations have been laid.
 October 4 marks an important date in Canada-U.S. Trade relations. In 1987, the two countries approved the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (CUSFTA). Negotiations for a free trade agreement with the United States began in 1986. The two nations agreed on a landmark agreement that put Canada and the United States at the forefront of trade liberalization. Defence Minister Harjit Sajjan warned that the delay in the purchase of the new aircraft could create a growing “capacity gap” between Canada`s NORAD and NATO commitments and the number of fighter jets available for use41 The Trudeau government proposed: Buy 18 new Boeing F/A-18 Super Hornets to complement the current FLEET of CF-18s on an interim basis, but overturned the purchase decision after Boeing successfully launched a petition in the United States. In April 2017, the Department of Commerce imposed anti-dumping and countervailing duties on Bombardier Aircraft of Canada for unfair business practices (see “commercial aircraft”). Instead, Canada decided to purchase 18 used F/A-18s from Australia.
Many defence analysts questioned the decision and found that the F/A-18s required costly modifications and maintenance after delivery and that the capabilities of the more modern aircraft were lacking, this could jeopardize interoperability with the United States and other allies.42 A key element of the agreement was the removal of tariffs, the removal of many non-tariff barriers, and one of the first trade agreements on trade in services.